The incidence of depression in patients with brain tumors varies in the range from 10% to 80%. Both anatomic and physiological perturbations in the brain are likely involved in the associations between depression and brain tumors. Tumor treatments are also associated with depression. 115-adult-brain-tumor-patients were examined at the Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Hospital Center Zemun, by using a clinical Hamilton Depression Scale (HADS). The level of depression and symptoms was studied before tumor operation as well as at three months after operation. Before tumor operation 16% of the patients had depression according to Hamilton Depression Scale (HADS), while 10% had depression at three months after operation. This research illustrates the need for a prompt neuroimaging of the brain when patients present any atypical psychiatric symptoms, late onset of (50 years old) first depressive episode or fast changes in the mental state. Better understanding of the relationships between brain tumors and depression should lead to improvement in patient care.
A mood disorder is the term given for a group of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV TR) classification system where a disturbance in the person's mood is hypothesized to be the main underlying feature. The classification is known as mood (affective) disorders in ICD 10. English psychiatrist Henry Maudsley proposed an overarching category of affective disorder. The term was then replaced by mood disorder, as the latter term refers to the underlying or longitudinal emotional state, whereas the former refers to the external expression observed by others. Two groups of mood disorders are broadly recognized, the division is based on whether the person has ever had a manic or hypomanic episode. Thus, there are depressive disorders, of which the best known and most researched is major depressive disorder (MDD) commonly called clinical depression or major depression, and bipolar disorder (BD), formerly known as "manic depression" and described by intermittent periods of manic and depressed episodes.
In the context of mental disorder, a mixed state (also known as dysphoric mania, agitated depression, or a mixed episode) is a condition during which symptoms of mania and depression occur simultaneously (e.g., agitation, anxiety, fatigue, guilt, impulsiveness, irritability, morbid or suicidal ideation, panic, paranoia, pressured speech and rage). Typical examples include tearfulness during a manic episode or racing thoughts during a depressive episode. One may also feel incredibly frustrated in this state, since one may feel like a failure and at the same time have a flight of ideas. Mixed states are often the most dangerous period of mood disorders, during which substance abuse, panic disorder, suicide attempts, and other complications increase greatly.