There is a tendency to use the word depression to describe periods or episodes of sadness that each of us experience from time to time. And for many of us, during these periods it is not always easy to discern where normal sorrow ends and clinical depression begins. Yet, anyone who has ever experienced an episode of major depression knows - at least after the depression has lifted - that what they feel is more than just ongoing or persistent sadness. According to doctors, clinical depression is an illness characterized by a cluster of feelings, thoughts and behaviors that are remarkably distinct from a person's normal range of feelings and functioning. Caused by a complex interaction of biologic, psychological and social factors, a major depressive disorder can make a person extremely sensitive to life circumstances, the least of which can throw him/her into total loss of hope. During a major depression, someone can become surrounded by feelings of sadness, hopelessness, helplessness, and emptiness, and these feelings can distort every thought and experience, making life seem hopeless and unworthy. Feelings of being deeply and continually deprived, unworthy, insignificant, and guilt-ridden build on feelings of sadness. At the same time, a person may feel chronically irritable, often exploding into anger and frustration. While a major depression may be triggered by some life event or circumstance, a person's mood reaction may seem greatly exaggerated. However, depression has less to do with life's events than with an individual's existing vulnerability to the condition. In some cases, someone may experience a major depression as a single episode, but in most cases, clinical depression tends to recur periodically, reactively or cyclically. A major depressive episode could possibly last up to two or more years. When someone experiences milder depressive episodes, this is called dysthymia. For someone suffering from dysthymia, certain life circumstances, such 1. Language: English. Narrator: Cathy Beard. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/078434/bk_acx0_078434_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
For anybody familiar with the condition known as bipolar 2, you will probably know how difficult and distressing the condition can be. Bipolar 2 Disorder is a condition most commonly characterized by at least one hypomanic (happy) episode and one major depressive episode. Firstly, what is bipolar 2? Bipolar 2 disorder, is a type of mental illness that is very similar to bipolar 1 disorder. Typically, people suffering from bipolar 2 will experience severe mood swings and changes, alternating from periods of extreme lows, to highs over time. The only real difference between bipolar 1 and 2 is that in bipolar 2, the person suffering from the condition will never experience what is known as full on "mania" type highs. The less-intense elevated moods in bipolar 2 disorder are known as "hypomania" or hypomanic episodes. Generally, people suffering from bipolar 2 disorder will have, or will experience at least one hypomanic episode in their life. Unfortunately, people suffering from this condition also suffer spells of depression, sometimes quite severe. This is where the term "manic depression" comes from. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Stefanie Jones. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/010154/bk_acx0_010154_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Cyclothymia (pronounced / sa kl a mi , s kl -/) is a mood disorder and a form of bipolar disorder. It is defined in the bipolar spectrum. Specifically, this disorder is a milder form of bipolar II disorder consisting of recurrent mood disturbances between hypomania and dysthymic mood. A single episode of hypomania is sufficient to diagnose cyclothymic disorder, however, most individuals also have dysthymic periods. The diagnosis of cyclothymic disorder is never made when there is a history of mania or major depressive episode or mixed episode. The lifetime prevalence of cyclothymic disorder is 0.4-1%. The rate appears equal in men and women, though women more often seek treatment.
A mood disorder is the term given for a group of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV TR) classification system where a disturbance in the person's mood is hypothesized to be the main underlying feature. The classification is known as mood (affective) disorders in ICD 10. English psychiatrist Henry Maudsley proposed an overarching category of affective disorder. The term was then replaced by mood disorder, as the latter term refers to the underlying or longitudinal emotional state, whereas the former refers to the external expression observed by others. Two groups of mood disorders are broadly recognized, the division is based on whether the person has ever had a manic or hypomanic episode. Thus, there are depressive disorders, of which the best known and most researched is major depressive disorder (MDD) commonly called clinical depression or major depression, and bipolar disorder (BD), formerly known as "manic depression" and described by intermittent periods of manic and depressed episodes.
This study examined the cognitive operations and responses implicated in depression vulnerability to assess whether a depressive episode can be predicted. It involved 332 never depressed (ND), formerly depressed (FD), and currently depressed (CD) women undergoing a major life transition (motherhood or first year university), with 267 involved in the follow-up phase 3 months later. The results that emerged from this study suggest that depression vulnerability might be associated with a dysfunctional regulatory mechanism involved in mediating the affective response. However, the lack of uniform responses on the depression and mood indices, even within the respective groups, challenges the possibility of ever being able to reliably predict depression by examining discrete cognitive responses. Implications for theories and clinical practice are discussed, along with an emphasis on involving factors constituting depression resilience. A new perspective of conceiving depression vulnerability is also proposed. This perspective is in the context of complex systems and dynamic equilibriums, and explains why predicting depression might remain a problem.
In the context of mental disorder, a mixed state (also known as dysphoric mania, agitated depression, or a mixed episode) is a condition during which symptoms of mania and depression occur simultaneously (e.g., agitation, anxiety, fatigue, guilt, impulsiveness, irritability, morbid or suicidal ideation, panic, paranoia, pressured speech and rage). Typical examples include tearfulness during a manic episode or racing thoughts during a depressive episode. One may also feel incredibly frustrated in this state, since one may feel like a failure and at the same time have a flight of ideas. Mixed states are often the most dangerous period of mood disorders, during which substance abuse, panic disorder, suicide attempts, and other complications increase greatly.
Major depressive disorder. Types of psychological depression, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Biology of depression, Evolutionary approaches to depression, Mood disorder, Rating scales for depression, Major depressive episode, Treatment for depression, Electroconvulsive therapy, History of depression, Mental disorder, List of people with depression
Numerous advances have been made in the pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorders in the last 5 to 10 years, to such an extent that it has become difficult for the physician to choose the most appropriate treatment according to the different parameters that must be considered. This is why it seemed necessary to us to try and give a synthetic overview of the growing amount of data to be able to respond to such questions as: Which mood stabilizer to choose and when should it be introduced ? Which therapeutic approach for a depressive episode, a manic episode or a rapid-cycling bipolar disorder? Rather than presenting treatment algorithms, the authors present a synopsis of the literature and knowledge based on daily clinical practice. At the end of each chapter, the important concepts and recommendations are summarized as key points to remember. The original French edition (published in 2004) was awarded a prize in Specialized Medicine at the 3rd International Festival of Medical Books, France. For this English edition, the text has been thoroughly revised and more than 500 new references have been added, reflecting the rapidly growing literature in the field. This book will appeal to all psychiatrists, interns and residents in psychiatry, psychologists and mental health nurses. It will also be of interest to general practitioners and any other clinicians or healthcare professionals involved in the management of patients with bipolar disorder.
This book presents new and important research from around the world on depression which is a serious medical illness affecting 5 to 8 percent of the adult population in a given year. Unlike normal emotional experiences of sadness, loss, or passing mood states, major depression is persistent and can significantly interfere with an individual's thoughts, behaviour, mood, activity, and physical health. Among all medical illnesses, major depression is the leading cause of disability in the U.S. and many other developed countries. Depression occurs twice as frequently in women as in men, for reasons that are not fully understood. More than half of those who experience a single episode of depression will continue to have episodes that occur as frequently as once or even twice a year. Without treatment, the frequency of depressive illness as well as the severity of symptoms tends to increase over time. Left untreated, depression can lead to suicide.